Abstract. Delforge, P. - Contribution to the knowledge of the spring orchids of Calabria (Italy) [Natural. belges 84 (Orchid. 16) (2003): 55-94]. Research in Calabria in April 1975, 1987, and 2002 has revealed 44 species and 5 interspecific hybrids. After a presentation of Calabria from geomorphological and climatical points of view, the few studies about Calabrian orchids are evoked. Discussions are made for critical and most interesting taxa observed. The presence in Calabria of Ophrys cilentana and Orchis brancifortii is asserted. Determinations of some taxa are revised from an updated taxonomy angle. As a result, it is possible to maintain the presence in Calabria of some species and to cast doubt on others. Serapias bergonii and S. vomeracea are both present. Most of mentions of Orchis coriophora in April on calcareous dry soils concern O. fragrans; the presence of O. coriophora s. str. is possible later in the collinean area of the crystalline Calabria, but should be confirmed. Ophrys lupercalis is present, O. fusca probably not. A taxon of the group of O. subfusca is present; it is closed to O. numida or represents O. numida itself. A third species of the group of O. lutea is present beside O. lutea and O.sicula; it is provisionaly identified with O. phryganae. The traditional mentions of O. tenthredinifera concern in fact O. grandiflora and O.neglecta; the presence of O. tenthredinifera s. str. is not confirmed. The group of O. exaltata is represented by O. exaltata and O. cilentana; the mount Pollino constitutes a Ōcontact zoneÕ for the two species. The presence of O. sphegodes is asserted beside species regarded sometimes as O. sphegodes s.l., i.e. O. exaltata, O.cilentana, O.incubacea, O. garganica, and O. tarentina; it is represented by a taxon looking for some characters like O. incubacea and more colorful than the Atlantic or Medio-European O. sphegodes. It is described here as Ophrys brutia (sp. nova). A list of the 44 species, 5 interspecific hybrids, and 183 localities prospected is provided.

Key-Words. Orchidaceae, Ophrys  brutia sp. nova; flora of Italy, Calabria.