Abstract. Delforge, P.- Ophrys gazella and Ophrys africana, two species ? [Natural. belges 83 (Orchid. 15) (2002): 45-58]. A small-flowered orchid of the Ophrys fusca group was first recorded from Tunisia under the provisionnal name of Ophrys fusca forme 1 by Valls and Valls-Lombard (1988). It was later described twice, as Ophrys gazella by Devillers and Devillers-Terschuren (2000), and then as Ophrys africana by Foelsche and Foelsche (2001), who contest the identity of O. gazella with Ophrys fusca forme 1 on the basis of fenology, lip outline, and lip size. Observation in 2002 in Tunisia has shown that the phenologies of O. gazella and O. africana are similar, that the lip outlines are identical (for that point, in fact, Foelsche and Foelsche have supported their reasoning with lips of O. pectus), and that the O. gazella floral size lies within the variation of O. africana. Consequently, O. africana, published in 2001, must be considered as synonym of O. gazella, published in 2000. A list of the 17 sites of O. gazella visited from 23d February to 5th March 2002 is provided.

Key-Words: Orchidaceae, genus Ophrys, Pseudophrys, Ophrys fusca s. str. species group.Ophrys africana, Ophrys gazella. Flora of Tunisia.