Abstract. Gerbaud, O.- Reflexions about the Vanilla Orchids and their hybrids [Natural. belges 80 (Orchid. 12) (1999): 280, 372-386]. The systematics of the Vanilla Orchids (Nigritella) has been recently questioned by genetic studies that conclude on the integration of the Vanilla Orchids in the genus Gymnadenia. The creation of a subgenus Nigritella, assembling the Vanilla Orchids inside the genus Gymnadenia is proposed as well as a new combination for Gymnadenia cenisia. Hypotheses are made on the genetic possibilities of transmission of the apomixy and on some phylogenetic consequences of that process. The 5 hybrids presently known between Vanilla Orchids are presented, 2 already described: Gymnadenia ×wettsteiniana (= ?G. rhellicani  × G. rubra) and Gymnadenia ×delphineae (= G. corneliana×G. rhellicani ) for which a new combination is made, and 3 new, here described: Gymnadenia ×eggeriana (= G. austriaca var. gallica × G. rhellicani), Gymnadenia ×robatschiana (= G. cenisia × G. rhellicani ), and Gymnadenia ×breinerorum  (= G. cenisia × G. corneliana). The problem of the identification of the Įred Vanilla OrchidsČ in the French Alpine zone is evoked. G. rubra (= Nigritella rubra = N. miniata auct.) does not seem to be present in that area. Individuals determined as Gymnadenia rubra in France are, in fact, G. corneliana var. bourneriasii, G. cenisia or occasionnal hybrids between that taxa and, probably, also with G. rhellicani.

Key-Words: Alpine flora, flora of France. Orchidaceae, Gymnadenia, subgenus Nigritella subgen. nov., Gymnadenia cenisia comb. nov., Gymnadenia ×delphineae comb. nov., Gymnadenia ×eggeriana nothosp. nov., Gymnadenia ×robatschiana nothosp. nov., Gymnadenia ×breinerorum nothosp. nov.