Abstract. J.E. Arnold. - The problems of the Ophrys fusca and O. omegaifera species groups in Catalonia and Valencian Land (Spain) [Natural. belges 80 (Orchid. 12) (1999): 120-140, 275]. A general view of the taxonomical and chorological problems in the O. fusca and O. omegaifera species groups in the Mediterranean border of the Iberian Peninsula, from the province of Alacant to the frontier with France is made. The O. fusca group includes 4 taxa in this area. The early flowering forms of O. fusca s.l., which have a relatively large labellum and are pollinated by Andrena nigroaenea (K.), are abundant and widely distributed. They are named in this work Ophrys fusca Link (= O. lupercalis J. & P. Devillers-Terschuren), but nomenclatural problems remain with this taxon. Other problems are how to differentiate morphologically O. fusca from Ophrys «colletes-fusca», a taxon from Malaga pollinated by Colletes cunicularius (L.) and yet to be named formally, as well as the knowledge of its distribution in southern Iberian Peninsula out of the studied area. The late flowering Ophrys «fusca 2nd flowering group» (as named provisionally in this work) has been shown to be pollinated by males of the bee Andrena nigroaenea (K.), which is also the principal pollinator of Ophrys fusca Link (and also of other species , e.g. O. sphegodes). But the O. «fusca 2nd flowering group» has a different flowering phenology (from april-may to the first half of june), geographical distribution (partially coincident with that of O. fusca Link and more restricted), and also differs significantly in a morphometrical character (length to width ratio of the labellum), which allows to neatly differentiate the populations of the two taxa. So, perhaps O. «fusca 2nd flowering group» should be considered as a species. Plants morphologically and phenologically similar to the Andrena flavipes-pollinated Ophrys «flavipes-fusca» (= O. bilunulata Risso following Delforge, = O. leucadica Renz following Paulus, = O. funerea Viv. following Lowe) are found in northern Alacant and in southern ValŹncia. But the only confirmed pollinator of these plants is Andrena vulpecula Kr. (previously known as minor pollinator of Ophrys sicula), so the Alacant-ValŹncia plants are named provisionally O. «vulpecula-fusca». The distribution of O. «flavipes- fusca» between Málaga and Alacant is not known. A distribution gap between these areas would reinforce the possibility that O. «vulpecula-fusca» should be treated as a separate species. The presence of O. sulcata J. & P. Devillers-Terschuren (= O. fusca subsp. minima Balayer) in Catalonia, near the frontier with France, has been confirmed. The only taxon of the O. omegaifera group is O. dyris Maire, which has a very little known detailed distribution. O. vasconica (O. & E. Danesch) P. Delforge has not been found; only occasional hybrids between O. dyris and O. fusca Link (O. ębrigittae Baumann) have been located.
Key-Words: Flora of Catalonia (provinces of Girona, Lleida, Barcelona and Tarragona) and Valencian Land (provinces of Castelló, ValŹncia and Alacant), flora of Spain. Orchidaceae, Ophrys, O. fusca group, O. omegaifera group.