Abstract. Delforge P.- Epipactis phyllanthes G.E. Smith in France and Spain - New data, systematic revision and taxonomical consequences inside the genus Epipactis [Natural. belges 78 (Orchid. 10) (1997): 223-256]. Research in France (Charente-Maritime, Gironde, Landes) and Spain (Cantabria) has lead to the rediscovery of E. phyllanthes North of Bayonne (Landes) and has allowed to notice that the delimitation of E. phyllanthes and its varieties are still difficult beside other newly described autogamous French and Spanish species as E. rhodanensis and E. campeadorii. The main taxonomical changes of E. phyllanthes since its description in 1852 are evoked as well as some past errors of determination. Comparison with Britain and Belgian E. phyllanthes shows that the populations of Cantabria, Landes, and Gironde belong to E. phyllanthes var. vectensis and var. pendula as delimited by Young. It is not the case for the populations of the OlŽron island (Charente-Maritime) and VendŽe, distinguished mainly by the frequent presence of a well developped glandular rostellum sometimes efficient. This last taxon is described here as a new variety, E. phyllanthes var. olarionensis. To make more accurate the description of the pilosity of the rachis, data for different Epipactis species ares given, based on the lenght and the density by mm2 of the different elements constituting the pilosity. Attention is also drawn to the minute serration of the edge of the leaves wich is depicted. With that new precisions, the delimitation of E. phyllanthes beside E. rhodanensis and E. campeadorii is clarified again. The large morphological variation constated inside the species E. phyllanthes makes necessary a reappraisal of the status of some Epipactis taxa for taxonomic consistency; to exemplify, the varietal rank is proposed for E. muelleri var. peitzii and E. albensis var. fibri. The determination of the unique individual of E. phyllanthes discovered in 1995 near Arles (France, Bouches-du-Rh™ne) in a very mediterranean site is revised; that specimen does not seem to belong to E. phyllanthes, which appears as a strictly Atlantic taxon.
Key-Words: Orchidaceae, genus Epipactis, Epipactis phyllanthes, E. phyllanthes var. olarionensis var. nov., E. campeadorii, E. rhodanensis, E. muelleri var peitzii comb. et stat. nov., E. albensis var. fibri comb. et stat. nov. Atlantic flora; flora of Spain, Cantabria; France, departments of Bouches-du-Rh™ne, Charente-Maritime, Gironde, Landes, VendŽe.