Abstract. D. Tyteca & J.-L. Gathoye.- A new orchid species from the Hautes-Alpes: Dactylorhiza delphinensis [Natural. belges (Orchid. 2) 69 (1988): 47-54]. Populations of a critical Dactylorhiza growing in alcaline fens of the department Hautes-Alpes (France), between 1.000 and 2.000 m, are biostatistically studied in detail. The taxon is compared to the allied species D. majalis, D. traunsteineri and D. lapponica. It is described as a new species, Dactylorhiza delphinensis. Its distribution probably covers also the department Savoie and may include other parts of the Western Alps.