Abstract. Devillers-Terschuren, J. & Devillers, P.- Distribution and systematics of the genus Dactylorhiza in Belgium and neighbouring regions [Natural. belges (Orchid. 1) 67 (1986): 143-155]. The group of Dactylorhiza maculata is represented in Belgium and neighbouring regions by two species, D. fuchsii and D. maculata. The populations of D. fuchsii differ little from those of Britain. Those of D. maculata mostly represent a widespread continental form, usually called ssp. maculata; occasional peat bog individuals resemble ssp. ericetorum of Great Britain. In the group of D. incarnata, the usual diploid is D. incarnata sensu stricto. Purple coloured individuals of northwestern France resemble D. "pulchella", but populations of this colour, with heavy markings and late flowering, occur east at least to Bavaria and their status is not fully resolved. Pale-yellow flowered plants of the alkaline fens of north-western France are not D. ochroleuca, as shown by a comparison with Bavarian plants. They probably represent a morph of D. incarnata or D."pulchella". The tetraploids are mostly represented by D. majalis, D. praetermissa and D. sphagnicola. New stations are reported for the latter two and a curious bicolored morph of the first is mentioned in Lorraine and southern Ardenne. Narrow-leaved plants from the fens of north-western France are tentatively referred to the British D. traunsteinerioides, which is compared with D. traunsteineri of the Alps. The occurrence of hybrids within and between the two groups is briefly mentioned.